If you have ever read the New Testament book of Acts, then you probably know that many of the places that Paul preached the Gospel were in Turkey. The Apostle Paul was born in the city of Tarsus. Christians were first called Christians in Antioch, which is now in Turkey. Paul and Barnabas were sent out on their first missionary journey from the church at Antioch. Many books of the New Testament were directed to people living in modern day Turkey (Galatians, Ephesians, Colossians etc...) There is much more I could tell you, but it would be better just to read through the New Testament and see for yourself.
For a better look, check out the original of the above picture.
Seven Churches of Asia in the New Testament book of Revelation